The significance of the development and utilization of solar energy
Energy is an important material basis for economic and social development. The energy problem is an unavoidable problem for the world in the future. The thirst of non-renewable energy is becoming increasingly dry, and the development of a low-carbon economy is imperative to develop and utilize renewable energy.
Energy appears in the form of electricity, which is an important symbol and foundation of modern social civilization. “Electric power technology is a bridge to sustainable development”, this thesis has become a consensus. People always try their best to convert primary energy into electrical energy, and the proportion of electricity in the final energy is constantly increasing. However, as the proportion of electric energy utilization increases, it also brings many problems. On the one hand, traditional primary energy used for power generation, such as coal and oil, has limited reserves. According to the current proven reserves and consumption, oil can be used for more than 40 years, natural gas can be used for more than 60 years, and coal can be used for about 20 years. China’s primary energy situation is also similar to that of the world. The 1999 government white paper estimated that the current remaining recoverable oil reserves are 3.273.6 billion tons, which can be exploited for 20 years; the remaining recoverable natural gas reserves are 1,170.4 billion m3, which can be exploited for 60 years; The remaining recoverable reserves are 114.5 billion tons, which can be mined for less than a hundred years. With the development of technology and population growth, the entire world is facing the challenge of exponential growth in energy demand. On the other hand, the massive exploitation and utilization of these fossil energy sources is one of the main reasons that cause atmospheric and other types of pollution and the deterioration of the human living environment. For example, the carbon dioxide and oxygen-containing sulfides emitted by burning fossil energy directly cause the global greenhouse effect and acid rain. How to protect the earth’s ecological environment on which mankind depends for survival while developing and using energy has become a global problem.
The situation is very serious. To develop the economy under the dual constraints of limited resources and environmental protection requirements, this requires that the alternative energy we seek must be renewable and clean energy. Therefore, the development and utilization of renewable green energy such as wind and solar power, and new environmentally friendly power generation technologies such as wind power, solar power, waste power generation, and fuel cells have developed rapidly worldwide. Among them, solar energy application technology and its unique advantages are even more favored by people.
Overview of the Progress of China’s Solar Energy Development and Utilization
When non-renewable energy sources such as electricity, coal, and oil are frequently urgently needed, and energy issues have increasingly become a bottleneck restricting international social and economic development, more and more countries have begun to implement the “Sunshine Plan” to develop solar energy resources and seek new impetus for economic development. As a renewable new energy source, solar energy has attracted more and more people’s attention. China is rich in solar energy resources and the prospects for solar energy utilization are broad. There are two relatively mature solar products: solar photovoltaic power generation systems and solar water heating systems.
China’s photovoltaic power generation industry started in the 1970s. After more than 30 years of hard work, it has ushered in a new stage of rapid development. Driven by national projects such as the “Bright Project” pilot project and the “Electricity to the Township” project and the global photovoltaic market, the photovoltaic power generation industry has developed rapidly. In 2008, the output of solar cells reached 2 million kW. In 2009, the production capacity of Chinese solar cell/module manufacturers doubled compared to 2008, reaching 8,000 MW, and the battery output exceeded 4,000 MW.
After years of development, China’s solar water heater industry has formed a relatively complete industrialization system. In 2008, China’s solar water heater industry continued to develop steadily and rapidly. Among them, the output value reached 43 billion yuan, and the export reached 100 million US dollars. In 2009, the annual output of solar water heaters in China exceeded 40 million m2, and the holdings reached 145 million m2. China has become the world’s superpower of solar water heaters.
2009 can be described as a period of rapid development of the solar energy industry in China, and the state’s subsidy support policies have been introduced one after another.
In March, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued the “Implementation Opinions on Accelerating the Application of Solar Photovoltaic Buildings” and the “Interim Measures for the Management of Financial Subsidy Funds for the Application of Solar Photovoltaic Buildings”, which determined that the subsidy standard for photovoltaic buildings in 2009 was 20 yuan /W. In July, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Science and Technology, and the National Energy Administration issued the “Notice on the Implementation of the “Golden Sun” Demonstration Project”, proposing to grant 50% and 70% of the financial resources for photovoltaic grid-connected projects and off-grid photovoltaic power generation projects in areas without electricity. subsidy. In November, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Science and Technology, and the National Energy Administration issued the “Notice on Doing a Good Job in the Implementation of the “Golden Sun” Demonstration Project”, requesting that the implementation of the “Golden Sun” demonstration project be accelerated. With the successive introduction of these policies, China’s photovoltaic industry has entered the second stage.
In 2009, China’s solar water heater “going to the countryside” is a major event in the solar water heater industry, marking that solar water heaters have been recognized by the country and the solar water heater industry has entered a new era.
The party group of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has officially approved the launch of the solar energy action plan. The plan takes solar energy as an important energy source around 2050 as its long-term goal, and has determined three phases of distributed utilization in 2015, alternative utilization in 2025, and large-scale utilization in 2035. The solar energy industry has a broad development prospect in the Chinese market.